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Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data might represent a more objective and reliable index of the treatment response than subjective ratings.

EEG [25] and MEG [26] resting state and auditory evoked f MRI and EEG [27] measures were associated with r TMS treatment effects.

As the left temporal hemisphere was stimulated we expect effects to take primarily place on this hemisphere.

Otologic assessment included micro-otoscopy, pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, and stapedius reflex measurement to verify normal middle ear function.

Mean hearing loss in d B HL was defined as the average pure-tone hearing threshold of both ears at 0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 k Hz.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany Received 29 July 2014; Revised 21 October 2014; Accepted 21 October 2014; Published 16 November 2014Academic Editor: Aage R. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Several neuroscience tools showed the involvement of auditory cortex in chronic tinnitus.

In this proof-of-principle study we probed the capability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (f NIRS) for the measurement of brain oxygenation in auditory cortex in dependence from chronic tinnitus and from intervention with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Twenty-three patients received continuous theta burst stimulation over the left primary auditory cortex in a randomized sham-controlled neuronavigated trial (verum = 12; placebo = 11).

In most cases longitudinal designs with modulation of the perception of tinnitus by lidocaine injection or somatic manoeuvres were used.